Originally published in The Clarinet 45/4 (September 2018). Printed copies of The Clarinet are available for ICA members.
The Repertoire for Voice, Clarinet, and Orchestra or Piano, ca. 1780-1888
by Albert R. Rice
Extensive obbligato clarinet solos are a feature of numerous vocal works written during the late 18th and 19th centuries, including operatic arias, concert songs, sacred works and cantatas. Many are significant parts of the clarinet’s repertoire and a pleasure to perform with a skilled singer and orchestra, or a sensitive pianist. The purpose of this article is to list and describe 28 significant works written between ca. 1780 and 1888, and to provide their title and date, modern published copies, and when known, the clarinetist who performed the work, and date of performance.1
From about 1780 to 1830, works for solo voice, obbligato clarinet and orchestra were written by several major and minor composers including Pietro Alessandro Guglielmi, Pierre Gaveaux, Ferdinando Paer, Franz Schubert, Johann Nepomuk Poissl, Giacomo Meyerbeer, Bernhard Henrik Crusell and Luigi Cherubini. From 1828 to 1888, works were written for voice, obbligato clarinet and piano by Schubert, Franz Paul Lachner, Auguste-Mathieu Panseron, Louis Spohr, Andreas Späth, Giacomo Meyerbeer, Mariano Obiols, Heinrich Proch, Conradin Kreutzer, Peter Joseph von Lindpaintner, Johann Wenzel Kalliwoda, George Alexander Macfarren and Henry Lazarus, who arranged a Thomas Arne song.
The first work for this combination is Franz Schubert’s outstanding Der Hirt auf dem Felsen (The Shepherd on the Rock), written in 1828. It remains the most popular in the repertoire. Another well-known, musically attractive work is Louis Spohr’s 1837 Sechs Deutsche Lieder (Six German Songs). The earliest work is a brilliant sacred aria by Guglielmi, “Gratias agimus tibi” (ca. 1780). During the 19th century it was the most popular and most frequently played. This study identifies performances of “Gratias agimus tibi” mentioned in newspapers and journals of six important clarinetists (John Mahon, Joseph Friedlowsky, Thomas Willman, Joseph Williams, Bernhard Henrik Crusell and Henry Lazarus); it was played 179 times from 1810 to 1873. Other 19th-century works often share themes of the shepherd, bird calls,2 and yearning for home. These works are musically well-written including Meyerbeer’s Hirtenlied (Shepherd’s Song), Lachner’s three songs, and Kreutzer’s Der Mühlwad (The Mill Wheel).3
The most important and enduring aria with obbligato clarinet is Mozart’s “Parto, parto ma tu ben mio” from Act 2 of La Clemenza di Tito (1791). It was performed 113 times by Anton Stadler, Josef Beer, Johann Hermstedt, Crusell, Willman, Williams and Lazarus, and is often heard today in the version for soprano, clarinet and piano. Originally, Mozart wrote this aria with Anton Stadler’s basset clarinet in mind since the clarinet part includes low D and C written in the bass clef, an octave lower than sounding – a notation frequently used in 18th-century basset horn music.4 Stadler’s 15 opera and chamber performances from 1791 to 1810 in Prague, Riga, Hamburg, Hanover and Vienna popularized this aria. In fact, there are four extant 19th-century B-flat basset clarinets, suggesting that some players commissioned instruments made for playing Mozart’s aria.5 However, the majority of later clarinetists did not purchase a basset clarinet, but played “Parto, parto” edited for the range of a conventional B-flat clarinet with E as the lowest note.
Selected works for soprano, clarinet obbligato and orchestra or piano
- Guglielmi, Pietro Alessandro (1728-1804). “Gratias agimus tibi” for soprano, obbligato B-flat clarinet and orchestra, ca. 1780. This virtuoso display piece uses a Latin text based on the Gloria from section two of the Ordinary of the Catholic Mass,6 and was probably taken from an unidentified Mass.7 Several other clarinetists during the 19th century performed this work, as documented in newspaper reports.8 The last two pages of an early manuscript (ca. 1810) in the Berlin Staatsbibliothek (Fig. 1a-1b) display a clarinet and soprano cadenza just before the end, not included in the later manuscripts and the modern edition.
Modern edition: Guglielmi, Pietro Alessandro. “Gratias agimus tibi,” Aria for Soprano, obbligato clarinet and orchestra, reduction for soprano, clarinet and piano, Massa, Italy: Nico Bertelli Edizioni, 2003.
Performers and dates: John Mahon, 1810-1822; Joseph Friedlovsky, 1818; Thomas Willman, 1819-1840; Joseph Williams, 1820-1860; Bernhard Crusell, 1827; Henry Lazarus, 1840-1873.
- Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus (1756-1791). “Parto, parto ma tu ben mio” for soprano, obbligato clarinet (or basset clarinet) and orchestra in La Clemenza di Tito K. 621, Act I, No. 9. The opera was completed in Vienna on September 5, 1791.9 The solo clarinet writing includes a slow lyrical melody, various arpeggios, and chromatic passages. It is skillfully incorporated in a scene where Vitellia asks Sesto why he does not leave, and he answers with the aria, “Parto, parto ma tu, ben mio.” Emotions in the text are reflected in music, as Sesto’s voice is sensitively combined with a beautiful clarinet melody. The tempo change to Allegro indicates Sesto’s excitement and anxiety while the clarinet plays triplets.10 The aria reaches an exciting ending. During Stadler’s concert tour on November 29, 1794, at the Schauspielhaus in Hamburg, he performed “Parto, parto” with the soprano Therese Beschort and an orchestra, as advertised in a program announcement (Fig. 2).11
Modern editions: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. “Parto, parto (Vengeance! Vengeance!”) Aria from the opera La clemenza di Tito, for soprano voice, clarinet in B-flat and pianoforte, arranged by Walter Bergmann, London: Schott, 1950. “Parto! Ma tu ben mio;” aria for soprano, with clarinet obligato, New York: International Music Co., 1952. “Parto, ma tu ben mio,” (“Wohl den, doch dann, Geliebt: wohl den, wohl den!”) Arie, mit Klarinette in B und Klavier, Leipzig: VEB Breitkopf & Härtel, 1957. “Parto, parto:” Sesto’s aria from the opera “La Clemenza di Tito”: voice, clarinet & piano, ed. Chris Allen, Ampleforth, England: Emerson Edition, 2003.
Clarinetists and dates: Anton Stadler (basset clarinet), 1791-1810, Johann Stadler (basset clarinet), 1795, Josef Beer, 1802, Johann Hermstedt, 1816-1819; Bernhard Crusell, 1816-1830; Thomas Willman 1817-1839; Joseph Williams, 1827-1862; Henry Lazarus, 1854-1869.
- Gaveaux, Pierre (1760-1825). “Il à peut-être connu lui même le pourvoir le l’Amour,” in Le Trompeur Trompé, 1800. This well-written aria for soprano, obbligato B-flat clarinet and orchestra has a florid clarinet solo that blends well with the soprano melody. The first page of the score shows part of the introduction played by the clarinet (Fig. 3).
Modern edition: Aria (polacca) uit de opera Le trompeur trompé: voor sopraan, clarinet en orkest, voor sopraan, clarinet en piano, ed. H. Flothius, Amsterdam: Broekmans en Van Poppel, 1952.
- Paer, Ferdinando (1771-1839). “Una voce al cor mi parla” for soprano, obbligato B-flat clarinet and orchestra in Sargino, ossia l’allievo dell’amore (1803), Act 2, No. 16. The aria starts with an orchestral Adagio introduction (No. 14), including two C clarinets, followed by a recitative (No. 15) that segues to “Una voce al cor mi parla.” It begins as a Largo ma non troppo with two orchestral B-flat clarinets written in tenor clef notation.12 An allegro section starts this bravura clarinet solo with two eighth-note solo clarinet pickups to share the melody with the soprano. After a short Maestoso, Paer returns to the first tempo, followed by a ritardando, and a brilliant ending. In the London press during the 1840s, this aria was sometime called “Gran Dio,” from the first words of the text. An early London performance of “Una voce al cor mi parla” was played by Thomas Willman and sung by Miss Goodall on June 8, 1820, at a benefit concert for the composer Louis Spohr (Fig. 4).13 Willman also played in Spohr’s Nonet and Sextet.
Clarinetists and dates: Anton Stadler (basset clarinet), 1805-1806; Bernhard Crusell, 1810-1816; Heinrich Baermann, 1814-1818; Johann Hermstedt, 1819; Thomas Willman, 1820-1825; Joseph Williams, 1841-1845.
- Schubert, Franz (1797-1828). “Salve Regina” for soprano solo, obbligato C clarinet, and orchestra, 1812. This is an early work using a Latin text, probably written for a student orchestra at the Royal Seminary in Vienna.14 The clarinet part is primarily placed in the clarion register and nicely compliments the soprano solo part.
Modern editions: “Salve Regina” für Orchester und Orgel, ed. Franz Kosch, Wien: Schubert-Erstdrucke IV (1928); “Salve Regina” for soprano (alternative clarinet II), piano and obbligato clarinet in B flat, transcribed for B-flat clarinet, ed. Pamela Weston, London: Nova Music, 1984.15
- Schubert, Franz. Offertorium. “Totus in corde langueo” for soprano, obbligato C clarinet, and orchestra, 1815. This C-major work uses a Latin text with an energetic soprano line featuring melismatic runs, supported by a similar clarinet solo line.16
Modern editions: Schubert, Franz. “Totus in corde langueo:” Offertorium (Op. 46): Ausgbe für Sopran (Tenor), Klarinette (Violine) und Klavier. Klavierauszug von Wolfgang Gabriel, Wien: Doblinger, 1978. “Totus in corde langueo:” D 136; Offertorium in C; per soprano solo ed orchestra (2 flauti, clarinetto, 2 corni, 2 violini, violoncello (contrabasso), ed. Werner Bodendorff, Klavierauszug (piano score), ed. Paul Horn, (full score), Stuttgart: Carus-Verlag, 1997.
- Meyerbeer, Giacomo (1791-1864). “Gli amori di Teolinda” (Thecelindens Liebschaften), cantata for soprano solo, obbligato B-flat clarinet, chorus and orchestra, 1816. This outstanding work was written for the accomplished soprano Helene Harlas and clarinetist Heinrich Baermann. It is written in eight parts with an introduction, two recitatives, chorus of shepherds (male voices), with sections 4, 7 and 8 featuring virtuosic passages for both soprano and clarinet. Only the alternating concertante passages of the soprano are loosely connected to the plot. The text of this cantata deals with the unrequited love of the shepherdess, Teolinda, for the shepherd, Armidore (the clarinet part). The soprano voice and clarinet tone join, complimenting each other, and occasionally culminating in thirds.17
Modern editions: Meyerbeer, Giacomo. “Gli amori di Teolinda” cantata scenica o concertante, Edizione critica, eds. Gaetano Rossi, Markus Engelhardt and Peter Kaiser, München: G. Ricordi Bühnen- und Musikverlag, 2000, score, parts, and piano/vocal score, rental; “Gli amori di Teolinda” Opera buffa in einem Akt, Adliswil: Albert J. Kunzelmann, n.d., score, parts, and piano/vocal score rental.
Clarinetist and dates: Heinrich Baermann, 1816-1817.
- Poissl, Johann Nepomuk Baron von (1783-1865). “Ihr weintet meinem Schmerz,” Aria for soprano, obbligato clarinet, and orchestra, third act of Der Wettkampf zu Olimpia oder Die Freunde, 1818.
Modern edition: Poissl, Johann Nepomuk Baron von. “Ihr weintet meinem Schmerz,” Aria for soprano, obbligato clarinet and orchestra, arranged for soprano, clarinet and piano, Massa, Italy: Nico Bertelli Edizioni Musicali, 2014.
- Schubert, Franz. “Romance” for soprano, obbligato C clarinet, and orchestra from Die Verschworenen, oder Der häusliche Krieg, D. 787, 1823. A melancholy aria in F minor of great depth and beauty. The clarinet part consists of short but sensitive responses to the voice.18
Modern editions: Schubert, Franz. “Romanze” (No. 2) von Die Verschworenen, Cavatina, arr. Fritz Spiegl, with B-flat clarinet obbligato. “Romance” from Die Verschworenen, London: Oxford University Press, 1957, score and parts. Schubert, Franz. Die Verschworenen: Romanze “Ich Schleiche bang’ und still herum,” soprano, clarinet and piano, ed. Robert Osborne, Fayetteville, AR: Classical Vocal Reprints, 2002, score and parts.
- Crusell, Bernhard Henrik (1775-1838). “Frän Ganges Sköna Stränder” (“From Ganges’ Beauteous Strands”) for soprano, obbligato A clarinet, and orchestra is incidental music in Den Lilla slavannan (The Little Slave Girl). The Swedish text was written during the 1820s. The aria is in three parts: a short orchestral introduction with three recitatives, a Larghetto with a flamboyant and technical clarinet introduction to the voice, and an Allegro non troppo that states a simple clarinet theme elaborated with 16th notes, answered by the soprano, elaborated by and joined with the clarinet.
Modern edition: Crusell, Bernhard Hendrik. “From Ganges’ Beauteous Strands,” voice, clarinet & piano, edited, transcribed, and translated by Pamela Weston, Ampleforth, England: Emerson Edition, 1980.
Clarinetist and date: Bernhard Crusell, 1824.
- Schubert, Franz. Der Hirt auf dem Felsen for soprano, obbligato clarinet and piano, 1828. Written in October 1828 for Anna Milder-Hautpmann and published posthumously.20 In the performances by Willman and Lazarus, this work is called “The Swiss peasant on the rock” or “Le Berger.” An early performance in Vienna occurred on March 10, 1830 with Anton Friedlowsky, clarinet; Caroline Achten, soprano; and Albin Pfahler, pianist, as the sixth number on the program (Fig. 5). A portion of the autograph is reproduced as Fig. 6.
Modern editions: Schubert, Franz. Der Hirt auf dem Felsen: für Singstimme, Klarinette und Klavier D965 (The Shepherd on the Rock D965 for voice, clarinet and piano), ed. Annette Oppermann. München: Henle, 2011.
Clarinetists and dates: Anton Friedlowsky, 1830; Thomas Willman, 1836; Joseph Williams, 1852; Henry Lazarus, 1863, 1865.
- Cherubini, Luigi (1760-1842). Offertorium: “Ave Maria, gratia plena,” for soprano, clarinet obbligato, and orchestra, ca. 1830. This Latin text sacred aria was popular in England and heard at 15 concerts by three clarinetists.
First edition: Cherubini, Luigi (1760-1842). Offertorium (“Ave Maria, gratia plena”) Solo für Soprano und Clarinett, mit Begleitung von 2 Violinen, Viola, Violoncell, und Contrabass in Ecclesiasticon, eine Sammlung classischer Kirchenmusik in Partitur, No. 27, Vienna: A. Diabelli, (1830), British Library, Hirsch III.689.19
Clarinetists and dates: Thomas Willman 1835-1840; Joseph Williams, 1836-1855; Henry Lazarus, 1856-1875.
- Lachner, Franz Paul (1803-1890). “Seit ich ihn gesehen,” voice, clarinet, and piano, Op. 82, 1831. From 1822, Lachner was the organist at the Lutheran church in Vienna, and was acquainted with Beethoven and Schubert. The song is stylistically romantic, beautifully written, with an engaging clarinet obbligato part.
Modern editions: Lachner, Franz Paul. Lied von Chamisso: (Seit ich ihn gesehen): in Musik gesetzt für 1 Singstimme mit Begl. d. Pianoforte u. obl. Clarinette oder Violoncello; Op. 82, Mainz: Schott, 1926. Two German songs: for voice and piano with obbligato clarinet in B-flat (Zwei deutsche Lieder: für Gesang und Klavier mit obligater Klarinette in B, “Seit ich ihn gesehen” and “Auf Flügeln des Gesanges”) ed. Timothy Roberts, London: European Music Archive, 2009.
- Lachner, Franz Paul. “Er, der Herrlichste von allen” (“He, the Noblest of All”) for soprano, clarinet, and piano, 1847. Originally published for voice, horn, and piano.
Modern editions: Lachner, Franz Paul. “Er, der Herrlichste von allen” for piano, voice and clarinet in B-flat or Violin or cello, or clarinet in A, Fayetteville, Arkansas: Classical Vocal Reprints, 2015; “Er, der Herrlichste von allen” (“He, the Noblest of All”), soprano, clarinet (A or B-flat) or cello or violin, and piano, Victoria, Australia: Kroma Editions, 2015.
- Panseron, Auguste-Mathieu (1795-1859). “Tyrol qui m’as vu naître” for soprano clarinet and piano, 1834.
Modern edition: Panseron, Auguste-Mathieu. “Tyrol qui m’as vu naître”: for soprano, clarinet and piano, ed. James Gillespie, Monteux: Musica Rara, 1981.
Clarinetists and dates: Thomas Willman, 1834-1835; Henry Lazarus, 1857, 1866.
- Spohr, Louis (1784-1859). Sechs deutsche Lieder for soprano, clarinet, and piano, Op. 103, 1837. Next to Schubert’s Der Hirt auf dem Felsen, this is the most popular work in this genre. From 1840 to 1884, three clarinetists performed from one to three of these songs at documented concerts.
Modern editions: Spohr, Louis. Sechs deutsche Lieder für eine Singstimme, Klarinette und Klavier, Op. 103, ed. Friedrich Leinert, Kassel: Bärenreiter, 1971. Sechs deutsche Lieder für eine Singstimme, Klarinette und Klavier, op. 103, ed. Friedrich Leinert, Kassel: Bärenreiter, 1997. Sechs deutsche Lieder op. 103: für eine Singstimme, Klarinette und Klavier, eds. Susan Owen and Michael Leinert, Köln: Dohr, 2010.
Clarinetists and dates: Johann Hermstedt, 1840-1841; Joseph Williams, 1842, 1849; Henry Lazarus, 1840-1884 (Often only one of the six songs was performed, No. 2, “Zweigesang” or “The Bird and the Maiden.”)
- Proch, Heinrich (1809-1878). “Schweitzerts Heimweh” (“Longing for Switzerland”) for soprano, alto, tenor, or baritone with clarinet, Op. 38, ca. 1838.
Modern edition: Proch, Heinrich. “Schweitzers Heimweh” (“Longing for Switzerland”) for piano, voice, clarinet or cello. Bentleigh, East, Victoria, Australia: Kroma Editions, 2015.
Clarinetist and date: Johann Hermstedt, 1840.
- Lachner, Franz Paul. “Auf Flügeln des Gesanges” for soprano, clarinet and piano, published as “Lyrisches Intermezzo,” 1840. The song is romantic in style and beautifully written with a flowing clarinet obbligato part.
Modern editions: Lachner, Franz Paul. “Frauenliebe und Leben,” for soprano, clarinet & piano, Op. 82 & “Lyrisches Intermezzo,” for soprano, clarinet & piano, ed. H. Dechant, Monteux: Musica Rara, 1981. Two German songs: for voice and piano with obbligato clarinet in B flat (Zwei deutsche Lieder: für Gesang und Klavier mit obligater Klarinette in B), “Seit ich ihn gesehen” and “Auf Flügeln des Gesanges” ed. Timothy Roberts, London: European Archive, 2009.
- Spaeth, Andreas (1790-1876). Alpenlied for voice, clarinet and piano,
Modern edition: Späth, Andreas. Alpenlied: Op. 167 No. 7: voice, clarinet and piano, eds. Colin Bradbury and Anthony Legge, London: Lazarus Edition, 2004. Fig. 7 is the first page of this charming work.
- Kalliwoda, Johann Wenzel (1801-1866). Heimathlied (Home song) for soprano, clarinet and piano, Op. 117, ca. 1841.
Modern edition: Kalliwoda, Johann Wenzel. Heimathlied: für Soprano, Klarinette und Klavier (Homesong: for soprano, clarinet and piano), ed. James Gillespie, Wiesbaden: Breitkopf & Härtel, 2000.
- Meyerbeer, Giacomo. Hirtenlied for voice, obbligato clarinet, and piano, 1842. A simple but effective work.
Modern editions: Meyerbeer, Giacomo. Shepherd’s song (Hirtenlied): for voice and piano (with clarinet obligato), German text with English version by Humphrey Procter-Gregg, New York: International Music Co., 1976. Hirtenlied: high voice and piano with B-flat clarinet obligato, New York: McGinnis & Marx, 1976; Hirtenlied: (für Soprano [Tenor] Klarinette und Klavier), Berlin: Lienau, 1995; Hirtenlied: for voice, clarinet and piano, ed. Howard K. Wolf, Boca Raton, Florida: Masters Music Publications, 2008.
Clarinetist and date: Henry Lazarus, 1860.
- Obiols, Mariano (1809-1888). I Laj: romanza, 1845.
Modern edition: Obiols, Mariano. I lai (A Lover’s Lament): voice, clarinet, and piano, ed. Colin Bradbury, London: Lazarus Edition, (2012).
- Proch, Heinrich. Die gefangene Nachtigall (The Captive Nightingale),
Op. 11, ca. 1850. Originally the obbligato part was written in ca. 1837 for horn, cello or viola.
Modern edition: Proch, Heinrich. Die gefangene Nachtigall (The Captive Nightingale), for piano, high or medium voice, clarinet or violin or cello, Bentleigh, East, Victoria, Australia: Kroma Editions, 2015.
- Kreutzer, Conradin (1780-1849). Das Mühlrad (The Mill-Wheel) for soprano, clarinet and piano, 1857. Kreutzer originally wrote this charming work for voice with an obbligato part for horn or cello in 1838. The clarinet obbligato part was first published by 1857.
Modern edition: Das Mühlrad – In yonder valley – In jenem Tale dort unten: for soprano, clarinet and piano, ed. James Gillespie, Monteux: Musica Rara, 1982.
- Lindpaintner, Peter Joseph von (1791-1856). Der Hirte und das Meerweib (The Shepherd and the Mermaid), for voice, clarinet and piano, Op. 156, 1857. Versions of this work were published for voice, violin and piano in 1845; voice, clarinet and piano in 1857; and for alto, basset horn and harp in 1851.21
Modern edition: Lindpaintner, Peter Joseph von. Der Hirt und das Meerweib: The shepherd and the mermaid: soprano, clarinet (B-flat) or violin, piano, Bentleigh, East, Victoria, Australia: Kroma Editions, 2015.
- Kalliwoda, Johann Wenzel. Der Sennin Heimweh (The Homesick Shepherdess), Op. 236, for voice, clarinet and piano, 1862.
Modern editions: Kalliwoda, Johann Wenzel. Der Sennin heimweh (The Homesick Shepherdess: voice, clarinet and piano), ed. Colin Bradbury; English version by Cynthia Morey, London: Lazarus Edition, 2010.
Clarinetist and dates: Joseph Williams, 1846; Henry Lazarus, 1849-1857.
- Macfarren, George Alexander (1813-1887). “A Widow Bird” for voice, clarinet, and piano, 1867.
Modern edition: Macfarren, George Alexander. Two songs with clarinet obbligato, “A widow bird”; “Pack clouds away,” ed. Colin Bradbury, London: Lazarus Edition, 1997.
Clarinetist and date: Henry Lazarus, 1867.
- Arne, Thomas (1710-1778). “When daisies pied” (from The songs in the comedy called As you like it, London: W. Smith, 1741), arranged by Henry Lazarus, 1888. Lazarus was an important British clarinetist, active as an orchestral player, in chamber music, and as an obbligato clarinetist. He also composed and arranged works, including this song by Thomas Arne.22
Modern edition: “When Daisies Pied,” for voice, clarinet and piano, ed. Pamela Weston, clarinet obbligato by Henry Lazarus, Ampleforth: Emerson: 1980.
For more on this topic, please view Part 2 of this series here.
1 For specific information on the city, venue and dates of performance, and sources of advertisements of several of the works listed, see Part 2 of this study on the ICA website at www.clarinet.org/tco.
2 James Gillespie, “Music for Voice and Clarinet, Part I,” The Instrumentalist 31, no. 5 (December 1976), 63-65.
3 Additional works are listed by Gillespie in “Music for Voice and Clarinet Part II,” The Instrumentalist 31, no. 6 (January 1977), 47-50; Nico Bertelli Edizioni Musicali, www.nicobertelliedizionimusicali.it.
4 Colin Lawson, Mozart Clarinet Concerto, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996, 41; Albert R. Rice, The Clarinet in the Classical Period, New York: Oxford University Press, 2003, 145.
5 See Albert R. Rice, “The Basset Clarinet: Instruments, Makers, and Patents,” in Instrumental Odyssey: A Tribute to Herbert Heyde, ed. Laurence Libin, Hillsdale, New York: Pendragon Press, 2016, 161-170.
6 Nico Bertelli, introduction to Gratias agimus tibi, Aria for Soprano, obbligato Clarinet and Orchestra, Massa, Italy: Nico Bertelli, 2013.
7 Suggested by Pippa Drummond in The Provincial Music Festival in England, 1784-1914, London: Routledge, 2011, 47.
8 For reproductions of the advertisements, search The British Newspaper Archive, www.britishnewspaperarchive.co.uk and Newspapers Publisher Extra, www.newspapers.com.
9 Ludwig Köchel Ritter von, Chronologisch-thematisches Verzeichnis sämtlicher Tonwerke Wolfgang Amadé Mozarts, 6th ed., eds. F. Giegling, A. Weinmann, G. Sievers, Wiesbaden: Breitkopf & Härtel, 1964, 621-622.
10 John A. Rice, W. A. Mozart, La clemenza di Tito, Cambridge Opera Handbooks, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991, 80-81.
11 Reproduced by Harald Strebel, Anton Stadler, Wirken und Lebensumfeld des ‘Mozart-Klarinettisten’: Fakten, Daten und Hypothesen zu seiner Biographie, Vienna: Hollitzer, 2016, Vol. 2, No. 64, 129. The author thanks Harald Strebel for permission to reproduce this program.
12 This clef was used frequently by many Italian composers during the early 19th century to indicate the B-flat clarinet; see Rice, The Clarinet in the Classical Period, 98-106.
13 Reproduced in Herfried Homburg, Louis Spohr: Bilder und Dokumente seiner zeit, Kassel: Röth Verlag, 1968, 102.
14 Pamela Weston, “Preface,” Franz Peter Schubert, Salve Regina for soprano, (alternative clarinet II), piano and obbligato clarinet in B flat, London: Nova, 1984.
15 Ulrich Schreiber, “Die Bühnenwerker,” in Schubert Handbuch, eds. W. Dürr and A. Krause, Kassel: Bärenreiter, 1997, 355.
16 John Noel Sumrall, “The literature for clarinet and voice and its historical antecedents,” University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Doctor of Musical Arts thesis, 1974, 52-54.
17 Robert Ignatius Letellier, An Introduction to the Dramatic Works of Giacomo Meyerbeer: Operas, Ballets, Cantatas, Plays, Aldershot, England: Ashgate, 2008, 16-19; Heinz Becker, Giacomo Meyerbeer, Gli Amori di Teolinda, CD notes, 1983; Sumrall, “The Literature for Clarinet and Voice,” 173.
18 Sumrall, “The Literature for Clarinet and Voice,” 52-53.
19 Christian Ahrens, “Schuberts Der Hirt auf dem Felsen D 965 – Lied, Arie oder ‘Duett’?” in De edition musices: Festschrift Gerhard Croll zum 65. Geburtstag, Laaber: Laaber Verlag, 1992, 163-164.
20 The author thanks Ingrid Pearson for a photocopy of the title page and information.
21 Thomas Grass and Dietrich Demus, Das Bassetthorn, Seine Entwicklung und seine Musik, 2nd ed., Norderstedt: Books on Demand, 2004, 159.
22 See also Thiago Ancelmo, “Henry Lazarus: The Life and Repertoire of a Leading English Clarinetist of the 19th Century,” The Clarinet 45/2 (March 2018), 46-49.
About the Writer
Albert R. Rice studied clarinet with Kalman Bloch, Mitchell Lurie and Rosario Mazzeo, and performs in local southern California chamber groups and orchestras. He has written four books on the clarinet, all published by Oxford University Press: Notes for Clarinetists: A Guide to the Repertoire (2017); From the Clarinet d’Amour to the Contrabass: A History of Large Size Clarinets, 1740-1860 (2009); The Clarinet in the Classical Period (2003); The Baroque Clarinet (1992, a second edition is scheduled for 2019); and a catalog titled Four Centuries of Musical Instruments: The Marlowe A Sigal Collection (Atglen, Pennsylvania: Schiffer, 2015). He is a retired librarian and musical instrument museum curator. In 2011 he received the American Musical Instrument Society’s Nicholas Bessaraboff Prize for the most distinguished book-length publication written in English in 2009; and the AMIS’s 2011 Curt Sachs Prize honoring lifetime devotion to scholarship related to musical instruments.